Ingmar Bergman Essays In Criticism

From the late 1950s to the late 1970s Ingmar Bergman, who has died aged 89, would have been in any average film buff's list of "great" movie directors. Similarly, no critics' poll would have omitted either Wild Strawberries or The Seventh Seal from their list of greatest movies. During those decades Bergman was at the height of his prowess and international fame - the latter thanks to the success of Smiles of a Summer Night, Wild Strawberries, and The Seventh Seal, a dazzling hat-trick, made in fewer than three years. His work was in severe contrast to the neo-realist school which had dominated post-war cinema, employing a surgeon-like precision to analyse the intellectual disquiet that seemed fiercely at odds with the hedonistic nature of the times.

His films had a grim obsession with physical confrontation (he once remarked that he would like to have made a film entirely in close-up) made possible by his collaborations with two great cameramen and his team of skilled performers, and Bergman literally astonished people with his willingness to recognise cruelty, death and above all the torment of doubt.

The results, although immaculate, remain somewhat heartless and one might easily - in the lesser films - confuse technical skill with mechanical bravado. He seemed unable to forget that he was examining a theme or topic, rather than creating a film where the medium itself can unwittingly reveal - in the hands of a great artist - an inner truth. The result is an occasional lack of spontaneity, compounded by the increasing skill of the performances. On occasion the actors so busily suggested improvisation and naturalness that, unlike the greatest screen actors Spencer Tracy or Trevor Howard, say, they achieved the opposite.

Bergman in his era was an undisputed colossus of the "art" cinema. In his native Sweden he also dominated as a director in the live theatre where he was prolific and, from 1963, the head of the Royal Dramatic Theatre, Stockholm. The two strands in his career were crucially inter-related. He surrounded himself with devoted teams of actors - Harriet Andersson, Gunnar Björnstrand, Bibi Andersson, Max von Sydow, Liv Ullmann and many more - making a film each spring or summer with a superb team of technicians. The acting is stylised rather than natural, highly self-conscious and moulded. Yet in the theatre his aim was always equally cool and precisely detailed. As a film director he, no doubt unwittingly, obliterated the great past and much of the then present Scandinavian cinema, so that his stature and eminence may be seen to have been a mixed blessing for Swedish cinema, especially for its would-be directors. Following on that fame and comparative fortune came a long period of self-doubt and seeming decline. As he observed in his life on film, Images, even the finest directors lose their credibility if they continue making movies that are only too recognisably their own. As with Fellini, so with Bergman, talent overwhelmed inspiration. An element of self-reference (and self-reverence) came into play while waiting in the wings were satirists and, worse still, Woody Allen, an admirer whose homages lapsed into the parody threatening the master. Bergman did not lack humour, but his serious intentions and angst could become ponderous.

Bergman became a beached whale and in March 1983 announced, after a return to form and the stunning success of the autobiographically inspired Fanny and Alexander (1981/1982), that he would not direct again. "I don't ever want to make films again. I want to quit. I want peace. I don't have the strength any more, neither psychologically nor physically. And I hate the hoopla and the malice. Hell and damnation." Of course other works followed, some for television, After The Rehearsal (1983), The Blessed One (1985), a documentary about Fanny and Alexander (1986), Karin's Face (1986) which was a short film about his mother, using photographs and with a soundtrack played by his second wife. And there were works from his novels and screenplays, The Best Intentions (1991) and Sunday's Children (1992). Plus his autobiography, The Magic Lantern (1988) and the intriguing Images, My Life In Film (1990). Essentially Bergman's cinema career, and most of his theatre work, spanned the period 1944 to the early 1980s.

With his death a reassessment of his impressive output positions him among such talents as Antonioni, Kurosawa, Ray, Wilder, Visconti. These second rung, but never second rate, directors hover fitfully behind the handful of geniuses - Bresson, Dreyer, Ozu, Renoir, Rossellini - where poetry and originality transcend matter and realism. What Bergman and the others lack is the (seeming) simplicity of expression that belies inspiration: an inspiration which makes true what would not otherwise have been apparent. In short there is an over-emphasis, an over-weaning power of expression, that obscures the counter currents of emotion lying beneath the surface of the work of those five pantheon directors, in such of their masterpieces as Voyage to Italy (Rossellini), Gertrud (Dreyer), or Lancelot du Lac (Bresson) which are truly beyond criticism.

Bergman wrote and directed some 35 features. He made other films credited only as director, and in turn provided screenplays for Sjöberg, Molander, Kjellin and August. He also directed extensively for television later in his career, and made documentaries, The Faro Document (1969 and 1979), sequences in compilation films, plus plays for radio and novels. His theatrical career from the mid-1940s until the 1990s, included classics by Strindberg, Shakespeare, Ibsen, Molière and 20th-century writers like Albee, Williams, O'Neill, though little "controversial" except Mishima's The Marquise de Sade in 1989. He also directed opera, including a famous version of Stravinsky's Rake's Progress. The immaculate visual surface of his films was guaranteed by his constant loyalty, whenever possible, to those two great cinematographers Gunnar Fischer, and - after Sawdust and Tinsel - Sven Nykvist. He remained equally loyal to his actors and, though certainly not to his wives, at least in a sense to his homeland. In fact, apart from his melancholy exile in the late 1970s he did not travel extensively for work. I remember the excitement of his production of Goethe's Urfaust, which came to London from the Malmo Theatre. It played to packed houses (in Swedish), partly because of his fame and partly because of its notable use of "deep focus" on stage, creating a fluent, cinematic pace. This technique he was still vividly using in 1984, for the highly regarded production of King Lear, where no actor left the stage throughout the performance - but remained in shadows or "out of focus" to the side or rear in darkness.

Cinematically, he was wise to remain in Sweden, despite the offers that came, notably after the first of his Oscars in 1960 for The Virgin Spring. When he did "dabble" with American finances or other "influences" the results were nearly disastrous, in the case of The Touch (1970) and The Serpent's Egg (1976), the latter made during his exile in Germany. The intrusion of imported "stars" to his work - Signe Hasso in This Can't Happen Here (1950) and Elliott Gould in The Touch proved embarrassing. Happily, when he finally worked with Ingrid Bergman in Autumn Sonata (1977), the film was in Swedish and helped his return home. It is understandable that Bergman, as an artist, needed control of his work; and, owing his origins to the severest aspects of Scandinavian culture, notably the theatre of August Strindberg and the silent films of his mentor Victor Sjöström, he was always happiest on home ground. Bergman grew up in the first hey-day of Scandinavian cinema which flourished, despite the smallness of those countries, alongside American and Soviet silents. With the advent of sound this international prestige vanished. The likes of Sjöström, Stiller, Christensen left for America, along with Garbo. Carl Theodor Dreyer, greatest of Scandinavian directors, remained behind but was reduced to comparative obscurity, making documentaries, running the Dagmar Cinema in Copenhagen and directing just three masterpieces between 1943 and 1964.

Bergman must remain second to Dreyer in the Scandinavian "pecking order", but was easily the most important director to emerge in the second wave of Scandinavian international fame. For a good while after the second world war his one-man army eclipsed directors even of the stature of his first collaborator Sjöberg (later to make Miss Julie) and Arne Mattson (One Summer of Happiness), as well as later figures like Widerberg, Troell and Sjöman. Even Dreyer in Denmark remained, for some years, in his shadow, though today that situation is reversed. It is hard on Bergman to "blame" him for being powerful, prolific and internationally successful. A man whose serious concerns were briefly stated in his introduction to Wild Strawberries and who had the intellect and vigorous film technique to carry out his aims: "I try to tell the truth about the human condition, the truth as I see it."

As he used cinema to examine - strip bare - life, he used life to examine cinema. Few directors have interwoven their persona and inner turmoil so powerfully as Bergman. His cinema was truly autobiographical, not simply in details and drama drawn from his own experiences, but in its spiritual and artistic responses to marriage, the Church, duplicity, illness, the nature of women, and death.

He traced the obsession with film to his early childhood when aged ten (in 1928) he acquired his first "rattling" projector and a strip of film showing a girl waking in a field. He ran that nine feet of fantasy into oblivion. This pathetic release from an oppressive household was compounded by experiments with "theatre" at home. Yet it seems to have been a childhood hardly known, let alone enjoyed. He noted, "I myself never felt young, only immature." But he created at least one film, The Silence (1962) which stands alongside Rossellini's Germany, Year Zero as one of the definitive masterpieces concerned with childhood. Arguably his finest work, it also contains monumental performances from Ingrid Thulin as the lesbian intellectual attracted to her sister, Gunnel Lindblom, the mother of the boy who is the catalyst of this genuinely disturbing film.

Some of Bergman's own demons sprang from his early years in a comfortably off household in Uppsala. His father, a Lutheran pastor, was notably strict - physically punishing Ingmar's elder brother Dag and capable of publicly humiliating the younger boy for his minor misdemeanours. The boys and their sister Margareta were obliged to attend all of their father's Sunday services. Erik Bergman was later to become Chaplain to Sweden's royal family and they left the northern university town where Ingmar had spent much of his time with his maternal grandmother. During his formative years Ingmar spent much of his time in a state of refuge in her huge apartment. This powerful woman - whom he was later to describe as his "best friend" - also accompanied him on his visits to the cinema. These visits were a far cry from the religious lantern slide shows organised by his father. He rebelled against his upbringing, becoming a "vagabond", seeing movies (as he had done illicitly as a child) and working in the theatre. With Sweden happily neutral in the war he was able, as a young man, to continue his studies and find work as a "script doctor" at the studios - a job that led to his first major credit.

It was during this time that he married Elsa Fisher, the first of five wives. It was a liaison that did not last long and in 1945 he married a dancer, Ellen Lundstrom, by whom he had four children. In 1944 he co-wrote with director Alf Sjöberg the screenplay for Frenzy. Sjöberg had unwittingly been an important influence on Bergman as early as 1930, when - after seeing one of his stage productions - 12-year-old Ingmar and his sister were inspired to construct a "theatre" in the family nursery. Frenzy made Mai Zetterling a star at home, then abroad. It did the same for Alf Kjellin, who later turned to direction. This extraordinary film about a young student's obsession with a beautiful prostitute allowed Bergman to turn director and after a feeble start - Crisis (1945), adapted from a Danish play - he wrote and/or directed eleven features before the enchanting Summer Interlude, which he was to regard as his first "independent" or truly personal film, and the misguided This Can't Happen Here, both in 1950. On many of these films Victor Sjöström, who had befriended the novice director during the filming of Crisis, receives credit as artistic consultant.

In 1952 he directed the best of his early films, the autobiographical Summer with Monika, but this story of adolescent love and betrayal hardly prepared audiences for the study in sexual humiliation which followed. Sawdust And Tinsel (1953) marked the beginning of Bergman's maturity and shocked many (including British critics) with its seeming cruelty and pessimism. Two years later the Christmas premiere of Smiles Of A Summer Night - a stylish comedy of manners - changed Bergman's fortunes, proving an enormous critical and financial success and giving him the artistic freedom he needed. It inspired Sondheim's musical A Little Night Music and Woody Allen's A Midsummer Night's Sex Comedy. Smiles of a Summer Night had a successful cinema revival in 1995. Bergman's reputation as a "gloomy Swede" was not dented for long, and subsequent films confirmed his seriousness and the seeming lack of humour that had been a criticism - no doubt superficial - since childhood. Subsequent major films, The Seventh Seal (1956) and Wild Strawberries (1957) endorsed his stature. The latter film stars Sjöstrom, and the great director was also the true begetter of the movie. Bergman had become one of the European directors - Fellini, Truffaut, Visconti, Clément, Wajda - who attracted wide audiences. How sad that Gilbert Adair could write, scathingly and accurately in Flicker's during cinema's centenary year that this period was just a memory - "No subtitles, please no subtitles - and no subtleties."

But for a long while Bergman's star continued to shine. An Oscar for The Virgin Spring in 1960, was echoed the following year when Through A Glass Darkly also received the best foreign film statuette. Great works followed after The Silence, notably Persona (1965) and Cries and Whispers (1971). This was the year of his marriage to Ingrid von Rosen, which followed a long relationship with Liv Ullman. It was a fifth formal relationship, since he had also been married - very briefly to Gun Grut in 1951 and to the pianist Kabi Laretei in 1959. Between those two marriages there had been long affairs with the (unrelated) actresses Harriet Andersson and Bibi Andersson.

A later highlight presented itself magnificently for the director who found cinema most akin to music among the arts, when he directed Mozart's The Magic Flute (1974) for Swedish television. The lavish staging and budget ensured that it was far more than a record of the opera. Within two years, however, Bergman was to be temporarily toppled from his position of eminence among Swedish artists when during rehearsals for Strindberg's Dance of Death he was arrested on alleged tax offences going back several years. Although subsequently cleared of blame, he had suffered a nervous breakdown and finally left Sweden, first for Paris, then Los Angeles and finally based himself in Munich, where he directed The Serpent's Egg, (1977) and some while later, the rather sour Life of the Marionettes (1979/1980). In between these he made the melancholy Autumn Sonata and the second Faro Document, about his much loved island and "home base".

This final phase of his career as director is notable for the magnificent Fanny and Alexander (1982), shown worldwide in two versions - at 312 and 197 minutes. The period is 1907, and the setting is a Swedish university city. Arguably the most optimistic of his works, it proved an international success and received four Oscars, including one for best foreign film in 1983. It was the culmination of a cinema career that has few equals in terms of quality, volume and integrity. For as David Thomson so aptly remarked, "Bergman never set out to be less than demanding." As an artist he had worked through that seriousness, and presented us with many works of subtlety and depth in their presentation of the human condition. As a man he had often led a troubled existence, once declaring his life as a human being "a fiasco". Possibly within this lies some of the reason for his immense output and drive to achieve in cinema and theatre what he had failed to do in life.

In 1995, Bergman wrote the screenplay for Private Conversations - the third film to be directed by his long-time colleague and partner Liv Ullmann. He was also honoured in New York in October 1995 with the $25,000 Dorothy and Lillian Gish prize, an annual award set up in 1994 as a memorial. As part of the 1997 50th anniversary celebrations of the Cannes film festival, Bergman was awarded a unique Palme d'Or designed by Cartier. He had been chosen by his peers, all winners of the Cannes best director wward, as the living film maker most deserving of this special honour. He declined to attend the ceremony, despite the inducement of $250,000 from Cartier if he made the journey from his home on Faro to France. Liv Ullman and their daughter Lynn collected the award on his behalf.

In 1998, after a movie silence of 14 years, Bergman - then nearly 80 - allowed the premiere of a new, made for television work at Cannes, which he had so studiously ignored the previous year. Philip French described The Presence of a Clown as "a magisterial meditation on the function of theatre and cinema, as well as on life and death". It seemed that the great Swedish director had decided to round up many of his regular collaborators of the past 50 years for a valedictory work on the subjects which had always concerned him.

· Ingmar Bergman, film and stage director, born Uppsala, July 14 1918; death announced July 30 2007.

Updated September 19, 2011

Film Studies For Free brings you, below, a very long list indeed of links to online and openly accessible studies of the work of Ingmar Bergman. The list was especially inspired by hearing of the first of the three video studies above, via Adrian Martin, Corey Creekmur and Christa Fuller. This news led to the subsequent discovery of the rest of this amazing videographic trilogy on Bergman's films by Jonas Moberg. Update:FSFF has learned that these videos were devised by Thomas Elsaesser, during his year as Ingmar Bergman Professor at Stockholm University in 2007 in conjunction with the project "Ingmar Bergman in the Museum" (a summary of which is linked to below). Initially, seven of these videos were planned, to go with each of the chapters in the book Film Theory - An Introduction through the Senses. The research for all seven Bergman Senses Videos was carried out by Elsaesser, together with Anne Bachmann, a PhD student at Stockholm University, and Jonas Moberg then edited three of them. Sadly, time ran out on the project and the remaining four planned videos weren't completed.

Bergman scholars and fans should also know about Ingmar Bergman: Face to Face, the beautiful website of the Ingmar Bergman Foundation, which showcases and links to numerous further resources. Sight and Sound has also just featured a fascinating essay by Lena Bergman on her father's viewing habits in his unique private cinema, a converted barn on Fårö, the Baltic island where he lived until his death in 2007. This year’s Bergman Week festival takes place in the cinema on Fårö from 28 June to 3 July. Television viewers in the UK might, in addition, like to hear that Film4 will show 16 Ingmar Bergman films in a series beginning next week. Yay!

If FSFF says so itself, the below list is probably one of its best ever (do scroll right down for all the videos). It was certainly one of the most rewarding to compile... It hopes you will find it in equal parts enjoyable and useful.
  • 'Ingmar Bergman: A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Library'
  • Michael Bird, 'Music as Spiritual Metaphor in the Cinema of Ingmar Bergman', Kinema, Spring, 1996
  • Pedro Blas Gonzalez, 'Smiles of a Summer Night', Senses of Cinema, 50, 2009
  • Thorsten Botz-Bornstein, 'Review: Irving Singer (2007) Ingmar Bergman, Cinematic Philosopher: Reflections on his Creativity. Cambridge, MASS: MIT Press', Film-Philosophy, 14.1, 2010
  • Michael Brashinsky, 'The Spring, Defiled: Ingmar Bergman's Virgin Spring and Wes Craven's Last House on the Left', Play it Again, Sam, ed. by Andrew Horton and Stuart Y. McDougal (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998)
  • Amir Cohen-Shalev, 'Beyond Reconciliation: Filial Relationship as a Lifelong Developmental Theme in Bergman’s Films', Style: Volume 43, No. 1, Spring 2009
  • Thomas Elsaesser, 'Ingmar Bergman – Person and Persona: The Mountain of Modern Cinema on the Road to Morocco', European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood (Amsterdam University Press, 2005 - Scroll to p. 133 in PDF)
  • Thomas Elsaesser, 'Ingmar Bergman in the museum? Thresholds, limits, conditions of possibility', Journal of AESTHETICS and CULTURE Vol. 1, 2009
  • Hamish Ford, 'Ingmar Bergman', Senses of Cinema, 23, 2002
  • Hamish Ford, 'The Silence', Senses of Cinema, 50, 2009
  • Ed Gallafent, 'Two Views Over Water: Action and Absorption in Ingmar Bergman's Wild Strawberries(1957)', in James Walters and Tom Brown (eds), Film Moments: Criticism, History, Theory (2010)[scroll down in large PDF]
  • Daniel Garrett, 'Dark Nights of the Soul: Themes in Irving Singer’s book Ingmar Bergman, Cinematic Philosopher: Acts of Love Can Redeem Loneliness', Offscreen, December 31, 2010
  • Daniel Garrett, 'Wild Strawberries: A Brief Note about Ingmar Bergman and Pauline Kael', Offscreen, 9.9, September 30, 2005
  • Sarah W. Gilmartin , 'The Masks of Performance: Art’s Aesthetic and Social Representation in Ingmar Bergman’s Fanny and Alexander (1983)',, 1st Global Conference (2007)
  • Eirik Frisvold Hanssen, 'The Fairy-Tale Theatre: Reception and Authorship at the Margins of the Ingmar Bergman Archive', Archives and Aueturs Conference, Stirling University, September 2009
  • Ananya Ghoshal, '“Not a day has gone by in my life when I haven’t thought about death” - Ingmar Bergman', in Mortality, Dying and Death: Global Interdisciplinary Perspectives, edited by T. Chandler Haliburton and Caroline Edwards (Inter-Disciplinary Press, 2008 - scroll to p. 338 in PDF)
  • Erik Hedling, 'Shame: Ingmar Bergman’s Vietnam War', Nordicom Review 29 (2008) 2, pp. 245-259
  • Erik Hedling,'[English Language review of] Birgitta Steene, Måndagar med Bergman: En svensk publik möter Ingmar Bergmans filmer. Stockholm: Brutus Östlings bokförlag Symposion, 1996', TijdSchriftvoorSkandinavistiek, 1, 1999, pp. 174-179
  • Alexandra Heller-Nicholas, 'Silence and Fury: Rape and The Virgin Spring', Screening the Past, 28, 2010
  • Vreni Hockenjos, 'Strindberg through Bergman: A Case of Mutation', TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek vol. 20 (1999), nr. 1
  • Poul Houe, 'Faces as Facts of Fiction', Scandinavian Canadian Studies/Etudes Scandinaves au Canada, 18, 2009
  • Jesse Kalin, 'Preface', The Films of Ingmar Bergman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
  • Jesse Kalin, 'Introduction: The Geography of the Soul', The Films of Ingmar Bergman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
  • Maaret Koskinen, 'Ingmar Bergman, the biographical legend and the intermedialities of memory', Journal of AESTHETICS and CULTURE Vol. 2, 2010
  • Maaret Koskinen, 'Everything Represents, Nothing Is": Some Relations Between Ingmar Bergman's Films and Theatre Productions', Canadian Journal of Film Studies, 5.1
  • Maaret Koskinen, 'From Short Story to Film to Autobiography: Bergman’s Intermedial Variations', Film International, January 14, 2011
  • Maaret Koskinen, 'Ingmar Bergman', Swedish Institute, 2007
  • Tarja Laine, 'Failed Tragedy and Traumatic Love in Ingmar Bergman’s Shame', in Kooijman, Jaap, Patricia Pisters, Wanda Strauven (eds), Mind the Screen: Media Concepts According to Thomas Elsaesser (Amsterdam University Press, 2008 - scroll to p. 60 in PDF)
  • Marco Lanzagorta, 'Cries and Whispers', Senses of Cinema, 25, 2003 
  • Kevin B. Lee, 'The Soul of the Megapixel: Ingmar Bergman’s Saraband and Scenes from a Marriage', Reverse Shot, June 9, 2008
  • Rikard Loman, 'Bergman’s Vintersagan at the Royal Dramatic Theatre', TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek vol. 20 (1999), nr. 1
  • Brian McIlroy, '[Review of] Steene, Birgitta. 2005. Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide', Scandinavian Canadian Studies/Etudes Scandinaves au Canada, 16, 2006
  • Lloyd Michaels, 'Introduction', Ingmar Bergman's Persona (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) 
  • Karin Nykvist, 'Remembering and Creating Childhood in the Works of Ingmar Bergman and August Strindberg', in Negotiating Childhoods, Edited by Lucy Hopkins, Mark Macleod & Wendy Turgeon (Inter-Disciplinary Press, 2011)
  • Darragh O’Donoghue, 'The Seventh Seal', Senses of Cinema, 50, 2009
  • John Orr, 'Camus and Carné Transformed: Bergman's The Silence vs. Antonioni's The Passenger', Film International, 3.5, 27, 2007
  • S. Ruken Öztürk, 'Besieged and Liberated Woman in 'Art' Films: The Problem of Private Sphere', Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, (hakemli dergi) 58 (2), 2003:153-176
  • Arthur Rankin, 'The Child Archetype in Ingmar Bergman’s Fanny and Alexander', Senses of Cinema, 50, 2009
  • Thomas Redwood, '[Review of] Thorsten Botz-Bornstein, Film and Dreams: Tarkovsky, Bergman, Sokurov, Kubrick and Wong Kar-wai. New York: Lexington, 2007, Screening the Past, 23, 2008
  • Daniel Ross, '[Review of works by Irving Singer]', Screening the Past, 25, 2009
  • Steven Shaviro, 'Ingmar Bergman', The Pinocchio Theory, July 31, 2007
  • Daniel Shaw, 'Woman as vampire: Ingmar Bergman's Persona (1966)', Kinoeye, Vol 2, Issue 15, Oct. 2002
  • Irving Singer, 'Ingmar Bergman, Cinematic Philosopher' (video podcast), MIT World, November 2007 (embedded below)
  • Murray Smith, '[Review of] Paisley Livingston, Cinema, Philosophy, Bergman: On Film as Philosophy', Notre Dame Philosophical Review, May 19, 2010
  • Birgitt Steene, Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide (Amsterdam University Press, 2005)
  • Birgitta Steene, 'The Transpositions of a Filmmaker: Ingmar Bergman at Home and Abroad', TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek, 20, no 1, 1999
  • Birgitta Steene, 'The Sjöberg-Bergman Connection: Hets – Collaboration and Public Impact' TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek, vol. 20 (1999), nr. 1 
  • Michael Stern. 'The Face as a Fingerprint: Mediation, Silence, and the Question of Identity in Ingmar Bergman’s Persona', Konturen, Vol. 3, 2010
  • Sharon Lin Tay, 'On the Edges of the Authorial Voice: Liv Ullmann’s Faithless, Gendered Authorship, and Ingmar Bergman', Women on the Edge: Twelve Political Film Practices (London: Palgrave, 2009) (excerpt)
  • Egi Törnqvist, Between Stage and Screen: Ingmar Bergman Directs (Amsterdam University Press, 1996)
  • Elsie Walker, 'An 'Incorrigible Music: Ingmar Bergman's Autumn Sonata', Kinema, 2008
  • Denise Ming-yueh Wang, 'Ingmar Bergman’s Appropriations of the Images of Death in The Seventh Seal', 제17권 1호 (2009): 41-62
  • Thomas E. Wartenberg, 'Review of Ingmar Bergman, Cinematic Philosopher: Reflections on His Creativity', Notre Dame Philosophical reviews, May 23, 2008
  • Lynn R. Wilkinson, 'Playful Performances: Ingmar Bergman’s Bildmakarna and Film Authorship', TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek vol. 30 (2009), nr. 1
  • Margareta Wirmark, 'Strindberg versus Bergman: The End of Spöksonaten', TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek, vol. 20 (1999), nr. 1 
  • Robin Wood, 'Call Me Ishmael [on Fanny and Alexander]', originally published in Canadian Forum, 41, 1983, republished in MOVIE, Issue 2, 2011 
  • Rochelle Wright, '[Review of] Philip and Kersti French. Wild Strawberries (Smultronstället). London: BFI Film Classics, 1995. Pp. 77. And Margareta Wirmark. Smultronstället och dödens ekipage. Stockholm: Carlssons, 1998', TijdSchriftvoorSkandinavistiek, 20, 1999, nr. 1
  • Rochelle Wright, '[Review of] Marilyn Johns Blackwell, Gender and Representation in the Films of Ingmar Bergman [Studies in Scandinavian Literature and Culture, eds. George C. Schoolfield and Robert E. Bjork], Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1997', TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek, vol. 20 (1999), nr. 1  

Irving Singer, 'Ingmar Bergman, Cinematic Philosopher' (video podcast), MIT World, November 2007

Liv Ullmann at the Bergman Week 2010, speaking about the filming of Face To Face with Ingmar Bergman. She talks about the relationship between a director and his actors, and specifically the scene when her character commits suicide in the film.

Wim Wenders talks about Ingmar Bergman

Agnes Varda talks about Bergman.

David Stratton talks about Ingmar Bergman.

Bergman Center interviews American director John Landis about Ingmar Bergman at Venice International Film Festival.

Bergman Center interviews French actor Jean-Marc Barr about Ingmar Bergman at Venice International Film Festival.

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