One of the best ways to prepare for the DBQ (the “document-based question” on the AP European History, AP US History, and AP World History exams) is to look over sample questions and example essays. This will help you to get a sense of what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response.
That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. I’ll briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of example essays by course. Lastly, I’ve provided some tips on how to best use sample essays in your own preparation process.
What's a Good DBQ Example?
Without a doubt, the best sample resources come from the College Board. This is because they are the ones who design and administer the AP exams. This means that:
Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt.
All samples are real student responses from previous years, so you know that they were written under the same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ. In other words, they're authentic!
They not only have scores, they have explanations of each essay's score according to the terms of the rubric.
Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of scores.
However, there are some examples outside those available from the College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. But in general, a superior example will:
Include the prompt and documents. It will be much easier for you to see how the information from the documents is integrated into the essay if you can actually look at the documents.
Have a score. Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out there in the uncharted internet don't have one. Without a real, official score, it's hard to gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is.
With that in mind, I have below compiled lists, organized by exam, of high-quality example DBQs.
Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil.
Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by Exam
Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to AP European History, and finally wrap up with AP World History.
AP US History: Official College Board Examples
Because of the recent test redesign, the College Board has only posted sample responses from 2016 and 2015. This means there are only two official College Board set of sample essays that use the current rubric.
Neither of these links include analysis (so you can look at the question separately from the scoring guidelines). When you're ready for the sample responses, here are the DBQ samples from 2015 and the samples from 2016.
If you want to see additional sample sets, you can also look at older College Board US History DBQ example response sets, all the way back to 2003. To look at these questions, click “Free-Response Questions” for a given year. For the corresponding DBQ examples and scoring guidelines, click “Sample Responses Q1.”
Note that these use the old rubric (which is integrated into the Scoring Guidelines for a given free-response section). General comments about the quality of the essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the score is on a nine-point scale instead of the new seven-point scale, and some of the particulars will be different. Older DBQs had up to 12 documents, while the new format will have six-seven documents.
If you do look at older DBQ examples, I recommend using the new rubric to “re-grade” the essays in the sample according to the new seven-scale score. I'll also give more advice on how to use all of these samples in your prep later on.
Mr. Bald Eagle is an AP US History DBQ Grader in his spare time.
AP European History: Official College Board Examples
Unfortunately, there aren't as many sample resources for the AP Euro DBQ compared to the other AP history tests because 2016 was the first year the AP Euro test was administered in the new format. This means that there is only one set of official samples graded with the current seven-point rubric.
The rest of the existing available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format implemented this past year.
In the old format there were six “core” points and then three additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the old and new formats:
In the old format, you were given a brief “historical background” section before the documents.
There were more documents—up to twelve. The new format will have 6-7.
There was an emphasis on “grouping” the documents that is not present in the new rubric.
There was also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in the new rubric.
The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP European History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric.
Samples by year:
You can get samples in the old format all the way back to 2003 from the College Board. (Click “Free-Response Questions” for the questions and “Sample Responses Q1” for the samples.)
If you want to check out some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by the College Board with the new rubric, look at the 2015 AP US History samples and the 2016 AP US history samples. The content will of course be different, but the structure and scoring are the same as they will be for the AP Euro 2016 test.
AP European History: Unofficial Samples
Because of the rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in the old format. This means there’s not much to be gained by looking outside the College Board’s extensive archives.
However, the New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on it. The format is not identical, and it is scored out of 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the documents are used versus where outside information is referenced. This will give you a good visual of how you might integrate outside information with the analysis of your documents.
Consider how you might integrate this castle into the DBQ that is your life.
AP World History: Official College Board Examples
The World History AP exam has just transitioned to a new format to more resemble AP US History and AP European History for the 2017 test. This means that all currently available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format to be implemented this year.
In the old format there were seven “core” points and then two additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the old and new formats:
There were more documents—up to ten. The new format will have 6-7.
There was an emphasis on “grouping” the documents on the old rubric that is not present in the new rubric.
There was also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in the new rubric.
- In the old rubric, you needed to identify one additional document that would aid in your analysis. The new rubric does not have this requirement.
The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP World History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric.
For whatever reason the questions and the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for World History, so you’ll need to click separate links to get the question and documents and then the responses.
If you want to take a look at some DBQs that have been graded with the new rubric, you could check out the 2015 and 2016 samples from AP US History and the 2016 samples from AP European History. The historical content is different, but this will give you an idea of how the new rubric is implemented.
Don't worry, the old format isn't as old as this guy right here.
How Should I Use DBQ Examples to Prepare?
So, now that you have all of these examples, what should you do with them? I'll go over some tips as to how you can use example DBQs in your own studying, including when to start using them and how many you should plan to review.
What Should I Do With These DBQs?
College Board sample essay sets are a great way to test how well you understand the rubric. This is why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on in your study process—maybe even before you've written a practice DBQ.
Then, when you compare the scores you gave to the scores and scoring notes for the samples, you'll have a good idea of what parts of the rubric you don't really understand. If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the graders, you’ll know those are skills to work on. Keep giving points for the thesis and then finding out the sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to work on your thesis skills. Not giving points for historical context and then finding out the AP Grader gave full credit? You need to work on recognizing what constitutes historical context according to the AP.
You can check out my tips on building specific rubric-based skills in my article on how to write a DBQ.
Once you've worked on some of those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. This way you can see how your ability to grade the essays like an AP graderimproves over time!
Obviously, grading sample exams is a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at examples in an old format (e.g. AP European History or AP World History samples). The old scores as awarded by the College Board will be helpful in establishing a ballpark—obviously a 9 is still going to be a good essay under the 7-point scale—but there may be some modest differences in grades between the two scales. (Maybe that perfect 9 is now a 6 out of 7 due to rubric changes.)
For practice grading with old samples, you might want to pull out two copies of the new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and each re-grade the samples.
Then, you can discuss any major differences in the grades you awarded. Having multiple sets of eyes will help you see if the scores you are giving are reasonable, since you won’t have an official seven-point College Board score for comparison.
How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using?
The answer to this question depends on your study plans! If it's six months before the exam and you plan on transforming yourself into a hard diamond of DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on a sample set every few weeks to a month to check in on your progress towards thinking like an AP grader. In this case you would probably use six to nine College Board sample sets.
If, on the other hand, the exam is in a month and you are just trying to get in some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to 10 days. It makes sense to check in on your skills more often when you have less time to study, because you want to be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on the skills that need the most work. So for a short time frame, expect to use somewhere in the range of three to four range College Board sample sets.
Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and doing some practice DBQ writing of your own.
Towards the end of your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading. Read and complete a timed prompt, then grade the sample set for that prompt, including yours! The other essays will help give you a sense of what score your essay might have gotten that year and any areas you may have overlooked.
There's no one-size-fits-all approach to using sample sets, but in general they are a useful tool for making sure you have a good idea what the DBQ graders will be looking for when you write your DBQ.
Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here?
Closing Thoughts on Example DBQs
Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in your arsenal of study strategies for the AP History exams. Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of your own blind spots so you know what skills to focus on in your own prep.
That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the same mistakes over and over again. And make sure you aren't using sample essays to avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to do at least a couple even if you only have a month to practice.
There you have it, folks. With this list of DBQ examples and tips on how to use them, you are all prepared to integrate samples into your study strategy!
Still not sure what a DBQ is? Check out my explanation of the DBQ.
Want tips on how to really dig in and study? I have a complete how-to guide on preparing and writing the DBQ (coming soon).
If you're still studying for AP World History, check out our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list.
Want more material for AP US History? Look into this article on the best notes to use for studying from one of our experts. Also check out her review of the best AP US History textbooks!
Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Since I am posting this guide under a pseudonym and have no credential-based statistics, my "credentials"-or ethos- are as followed:
- Dartmouth Undergraduate
- 2280 SAT
- 5 on AP Euro/AP World Exam (taken in same year)
I am here to offer a guide for struggling European History or World History students who aim for a 5 on their AP exam. It is certainly possible to still earn a 5 without achieving a 9 on any of the essay portions, but we can all agree that earning a 9 can dramatically increase one's chances for that desirable 5.
The DBQ essay can be very intimidating at first. However, the sooner you understand what the object of the DBQ is and what the authors/graders are looking for, it all comes down to how well you can comprehend the primary source documents.
This is how I define the DBQ (this type of mentality can also dramatically increase your score): An essay where you simply organize 10-12 documents into 3 categories (4 if you want, but it doesn't substantially increase your score), analyze the author's opinion/perspective, and ask yourself: "What does his or her title/position/job tell me about his perspective?".
For some, the only concern is analyzing POV (point-of-view) for the documents. For others, it may be doing the whole essay itself, so I will write my own personal strategy for the entire process of writing a successful DBQ as well as analyze some of the 2011 AP Euro DBQ.
Read the Historical Background. It can really help give you a perspective into the time period and possible tips for POV's. Here is an example from the 2011 Ap European History DBQ. *Note: I have not read through the DBQ, I am almost literally going through process as if I were doing the DBQ as I am writing this guide.
"Elizabeth I of England (reigned 1558-1603) was the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Following the reigns of her half siblings, Edward VI and Mary I , Elizabeth I ascended to the throne at age twenty-five."
We can get a lot of information from this 2-sentence excerpt.
- General summary of the documents --> Something about Elizabeth I of England who ascended to the throne at age 25. We can assume there will probably be conflicting documents about how people felt about her rise to power or what she was like as a ruler.
- Time period (1558-1603) --> Some historical background could help, but the documents will most likely clarify what was happening during this period.
- Family --> This is where outside information can help you. Including outside information about her family and possible influences on Elizabeth will always help you. Any outside information even somewhat related can help you.
- Age she began ruling --> 25 seems like a somewhat young age. So this is good information to keep in mind while reading through the perspectives of documents.
As you can tell, there are 4 big points you can gain simply from the background.
Read all the documents and categorize them into 3 -four if you deem necessary- categories. This part solely relies on your ability to comprehend what the author of the document is saying and his perspective. I can't really help much in this step, but here is a simple list of things to watch out for:
- Negative terms: "against, may not, utterly impossible" etc.
- Sarcasm (My favorite to date I remember in a DBQ about imperialism: "philanthropy is great, but philanthropy at five-percent is even better." Not quite sarcasm, but the author is saying that philanthropy is great, but also earning a 5% interest is even better. It's an economic/humanitarian perspective.
- Prolonged sentences and excessive adjectives. Try and cut down the sentence in your mind if you can. Sometimes documents are in such a hatred tone that they will take 15 words to describe how awful something/someone is and arrive at the point much later.
As for defining categories, generally you should just try and fill these ubiquitous templates since they work 99% of the time.
- Humanitarian (White Man's Burden)
- Intellectual Development
These 8 categories will generally fit every DBQ the collegeboard can conjure up.
Step 3: (Least favorite amongst all)
Now let's get into analyzing author perspectives. I remember my history teacher had a hard time trying to explain this, and when I tutored students in AP History, I did as well. This skill I call the "weeder". It really distinguishes between students who can make connections, and those can cannot. POV, in my opinion, is simply the ability to make the connections. I find that using the template: " It makes sense that ______ (person) holds this position because he is ______" helps get the thoughts flowing.
Let's analyze a document from the 2011 DBQ that we talked about earlier.
In document 2, Nicholas Heath, archbishop of York, is against the leadership of Elizabeth. Since Heath is an archbishop, he has most likely read the bible and interpreted the role of women as inferior compared to men. * Being the religions man Heath is, it makes sense for him to be against the leadership of a woman.
* When talking about the bible, it is easy to blame the position of a person based on his/her interpretation of the bible since there is infinite number of the ways to interpret the bible.
I think the main problem for most students is that they over-think the POV. Some may question the validity of my example of POV, but it clearly works since I consistently received 8 - 9's on my DBQ's in class and on the AP Exam. POV is more straightforward and making the connections.
I do have one possible "trick" for how to do a lot better on the POV. Go to art museums and buy/listen to the art descriptions. There are constant POV analyses of art in these recordings and it could very well help you better understand how to analyze an author's -or in this case painter's- POV.
That is all I have to offer for the DBQ. Other than what I have said above, the only other way to get better is: practice, practice, practice. It may be hard/intimidating at first, but if you stick with it and work hard, it will pay off.
Good night, and good luck. (High-five to anyone who gets the reference.) :)
Post edited by maxconf on
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